This algebra reference is important for cryptography and error control coding.

# 1. NUMBER SETS

- –
**Natural numbers**{1,2,3,…}- Does not include infinity as it is not a valid number. **Prime numbers**– A subset of natural numbers that has no lower order factors except 1. See link- –
**Integers**{… , -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …}- Negative and positive whole numbers including zero. - –
**Rational numbers**. The result of a division operation of any two integers but without zero as the denominator. Could also be thought of as numbers that can be represented as a fraction(ratio of two integers). **Irrational numbers**. A number that can’t be represented as a ratio of two integers exactly, without zero as the denominator.(NOT rational)- –
**Real numbers**. Includes all rational and irrational numbers thus Natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers. - –
**Imaginary numbers**. See link - –
**complex numbers**. A combination of real and imaginary numbers. Example: 3+4i, -16.5+4.3i

Mathematical number set venn diagram. Source: http://www.mathsisfun.com/sets/number-types.html

# 2. MODULAR ARITHMETIC

**STEP 1**

If we have A, R, M which belong to the set of integers, and m>0:

A ≡ R mod M ≡ QM + R

Where R is the reminder, Q is the quotient, M is the divider, A is the unreduced number.

This means that an integer “A” can be reduced to R in a modulo “M” operation.

**STEP2**

Due to different quotients giving different reminders, another constraint is added to the reminder.

0 ≤ R ≤ M-1

**Example(Modulo 9 addition)**:

(16+7) mod 9=23 mod 9

Without the step 2 constraint on the reminder, the following reminders are valid:

For the following set of Q{…, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …} gives this set of R {…, 32, 23, 14, 5, -4, …}

If we apply the step 2 constraint, the valid value of the modulo addition is 5 as 0 ≤ 5 ≤ 8

**Python code**

Calling the python interpreter on the command line

>>> #Compute the modulo of an integer with python's modulo operator ... -1%5 4 >>> #Trial of the example above ... (16+7)%9 5

# 3. ALGEBRAIC GROUP(or simply group)

A group is a mathematical entity that describes a set of elements, say G that is generally defined with certain properties under a hypothetical binary operation • . the general operation • combines any two elements of G to give a result. (a•b=c)

### PROPERTIES OF GROUPS

- The result of the binary operation “•” with the elements of G is closed, This means that the result will still be in the set of elements G.
- The operation on elements of the group is associative.(a•b)•c=a•(b•c)
- There is an element “
**e**” in G called the neutral/identity element of the set G under the binary operation “•”. - Every element in the group G has an inverse under the operation. The following relation thus automatically holds. For ∀ a∈G, a•a
^{-1}=e,where e is the identity element of the group. - If the group is commutative under the operation, the group is known as an
**abelian group**.